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As the world recently observed Holocaust Remembrance Day, hopefully, every- one is learning and understanding that antisemitism, often described as “the oldest hatred,” has persisted throughout history, before and beyond the Holocaust. Because of this continuous persecution, the Jewish people have, throughout history, been on the move as is recorded in many ancient manuscripts and documents. It was during the violent and turbulent period of the crusades in England and Europe that the Codex Valmadonna I, a Chumash (liturgical Torah), was produced within the Jewish community in England in the twelfth century. According to the scribe’s handwriting, this one-of-a-kind Hebrew Bible manuscript was completed on July 9, 1189, which is the very month that Richard I, also known as Richard the Lionheart, was crowned the king of England.

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